III. Choose A, B, C, or D that best completes each sentence. Oil, coal and natural gas are ____ fuels made from decayed material.

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IV. Read the following passage and choose the best answer for each blank.

Attractive landscape sites, such as sandy beaches, lakes, riversides, and mountain tops and slopes, are often affected by mass tourism. Physical (26) _______ are caused not only by clearing and construction of tourism-related land, but by continuing tourist activities and (27) _______changes in local economies and ecologies.

The development of tourism (28) _______such as accommodation, water supplies, can (29) _______ sand mining, beach and sand dune erosion, soil erosion and extensive paving. In addition, road and airport construction can lead to land degradation and loss of wildlife habitats and deterioration of scenery.

In Yosemite National Park in the United States, for instance, the number of roads and facilities (30) _______ to keep pace with the growing visitor numbers and to supply facilities, infrastructure and parking lots for all these tourists. These actions have caused (31) _______loss in the park and are (32) _______by various forms of pollution including air pollution from automobile emissions. The authorities have reported, "Smog was (33)_______that Yosemite Valley could not be seen from airplanes". This occasional smog is harmful to all species and vegetation inside the park.

Construction of ski resort accommodation and facilities frequently (34) _______clearing forested land. Coastal wetlands are often drained and filled due to lack of more suitable sites for construction of tourism facilities and infrastructure. These activities can cause severe disturbance and erosion of the local (35) _______, even destruction in the long term.

V. Read the passage below and choose one correct answer for each question.

There are many ways that recycling helps the environment, and even the smallest step can have significant results.

The environmental problem of landfills is a difficult issue to fix. As more waste is put into landfills, the bigger the problem gets. Wastes that are not biodegradable or are slow to decompose can remain in landfill sites for centuries, often emitting gases that could be harmful to the environment. Keeping paper out of landfills is just one way that recycling helps the environment.

Recycling items often uses less energy than manufacturing products from natural sources. Making paper that is using recycled pulp, for instance, is much less energy intensive than using new wood. While there are benefits to growing trees because of the carbon dioxide that they consume, it will be the damage that is done to the environment by putting paper in landfills and using energy to produce new items.

Waste in landfills emit gases as it rots. This can pollute the environment. Anyone who has passed a landfill site during hot weather will be familiar with the unpleasant smell and flies that can be found near a landfill site. Reducing the items in landfills will help to reduce the pollution that it causes. Recycling wastes also typically emits less carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, thus reducing the carbon footprint of a product.

Another benefit of recycling is that there is often a significant cost saving to be made when using recycle goods. Recycling leaves and grass, for instance, is a great way to make compost. Using homemade compost is obviously a lot cheaper than buying compost and this is a useful way to save money. Saving money through recycling ultimately helps the environment.

Recycling is just one of many ways that we can help the environment. Every step that we take, however small, is one more towards helping and supporting the environment in which we live. Getting everyone involved, from children to adults, can help produce a better environment for many generations to come.