Read the passage and decide whether the statement is true or false.
The Owners of the "News”
The role of the media is essentially defined by the manipulation of information-oriented towards the control of "public opinion", but their goals are not social as described in the mythology of "journalistic objectivity".
The famous ethical flags of journalism: fairness, objectivity and freedom of expression, are nothing more than myths concealing the billionaire media business that moves daily market information on a global scale. The process of manufacturing and distributing information is not motivated by the need to "inform" but by the capitalist need to sell news. To do this, the media, like any capitalist company, generates massive consumer needs in society and plots information strategies aimed at encouraging business growth, positioning themselves in order to successfully compete in the market.
First, information is a commodity to produce economic returns like any other commercial product offered in the capitalist market. In functional terms (and beyond the legend that is produced around it) the newspaper businesses are not guided by social purposes but for the pursuit of economic gain. Secondly, in the light of the strategic nature of the communication function to develop from the point of view of preservation of the "governance", system the media is a key tool for the control and manipulation of the economic, political and social processes.
In the news business, like any business venture, the media only works for those who can pay for their "informative" services. This is why a relationship of mutual survival between the media, governments and major economic groups exists. These groups decide what is news and what is not and use this strategy to control political, economic and social trends.
Read the passage and choose the best answer.
Instagram was founded by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger in October 2010. Systrom and Krieger initially wanted to create an application for mobile photography called Burbn, but upon developing their idea further, they found that it was too similar to the existing search-result app called Foursquare. They tweaked their original idea until they came up with a photo-sharing app. The name “Instagram” is a combination of “instant camera” and “telegram.”
From the outset, Instagram proved extremely popular. Only two months after its launch, it achieved a million users and reached ten million users in its first year. The simple idea of sharing photos in a social media setting appealed to a wide variety of phone users. As time went on, Systrom and Krieger began making a series of technology-related improvements to the app —making it compatible with Android and Windows phones, for example - as well as improving the user experience. In January 2011, it added hashtags, offering users the ability to find posts and people related to common interests. As Instagram grew into one of the most popular apps in the world, tech titans took notice. In 2012, Facebook purchased Instagram for one billion dollars.
In November 2012, Instagram launched web versions of user profiles, giving desktop users the ability to access Instagram profiles. However, the website profile launch retained limited functionality and lacked a search bar; the feature was redesigned in 2015. Instagram also began allowing the upload of non-square photos to the app in August 2015, a notable shift from the look and feel of the app since its inception. Rather than cropping down larger photos to a neat square, users could upload any photo of any dimension to share with friends and followers.
In March 2016, Instagram changed the nature of its news feed, the place where users scroll through newly-posted photos from those they follow, from chronological to algorithmic. “Algorithmic” means that Instagram uses computer algorithms and artificial intelligence to make “decisions” on what its data predicts you’ll like best. While this decision was met with backlash at first, it was made in order to prevent users from missing important posts from friends and family that might have gone unnoticed with a standard chronological timeline approach. Later in 2016, the app underwent major aesthetic changes; the app itself revamped to a black-and-white theme, while the app icon changed to a whimsical rainbow-colored design.
Today, Instagram boasts 800 million users. Every day, 55 million photos are uploaded and 1.2 billion likes are recorded.
Read the passage and choose the best answer.
The Internet is the world’s largest computer network with over 100 million users worldwide and this number is doubling from year to year. The Internet is like an international highway of information. Now, you can sit at your computer, choose a route and arrive at your destination -that is, the information you need. Today, from your computer, you can access a library in one country, talk to an expert on a certain topic in a second country and send your own information to someone doing research in a third. So, we don’t know what will be next in the not-too-distant future.
The Internet was born when scientists attempted to connect the American Defence Network to other satellite networks in order to exchange information. Soon, scientific and educational institutions as well as research departments became interested in linking up, and, before long, the Internet had expanded into an international information and communication network.
The Internet now reaches all the countries in the world. You can be connected to the Internet directly through your own computer or you can hook up to an access system which allows you to use some of the Internet’s services.
To tell the truth, there are problems with modern technology like the Internet. For example, copyright laws and other media regulations haven’t managed to come to grips with the Internet yet. Unfortunately, some unscrupulous people have already recognized the commercial potential of the Internet. They have used it to sell stolen goods illegally and even pornorgraphy, which would obviously make the Internet unsuitable for use in schools. Both government and computer experts are concerned about the misuse of such a system and must do their best to prevent it. Nobody actually owns the Internet, nobody runs it and no one has the power to switch it off. Thus, the nature of the Internet will be shaped by the culture and morality of the people who use it.