Read the passage and choose the correct option (A, B, C, or D) to answer each of the given questions.
In 1959, the government of Egypt was working on a plan to build a dam on the River Nile. It was called the Aswan Dam, and it was intended to generate electricity and allow the river water to be used for agriculture. There was one big problem with the plan, though. The dam would flood a nearby valley that contained ancient Egyptian treasures, including two enormous stone temples.
It can be difficult for governments to choose culture and history over economics. However, if countries always made decisions like this, the majority of the world's ancient sites would end up being destroyed. Luckily, UNESCO stepped in. They formed a committee that tried to convince Egypt to protect its ancient treasures. With support from many countries, they were finally successful. The huge temples were carefully removed from their original site and moved to a safe location so that the dam could be built.
After their success in saving the temples in Egypt, UNESCO went on to save more sites around the world. They protected lagoons in Venice, ruins in Pakistan, and temples in Indonesia. With industrialisation changing the world rapidly, there were many sites that needed to be saved. Eventually, UNESCO formed the World Heritage Organisation to protect important natural and historic sites wherever it was necessary.
By now, the World Heritage Organisation has protected hundreds of sites ranging from beautiful natural islands to buildings in large cities and ancient ruins. If you're able to visit any of the many protected sites, you'll agree it was worth it.
Read the text again. Decide whether the following statements are true (T), false (F)
Changing lifestyles for better health
As a way of living, lifestyle is everyday behaviours, activities, and diet. It involves your work, leisure activities, food and drink consumption, and interaction with people. That is why it is important to have a healthy lifestyle. Although it is often difficult to change your habits, reorganising your daily activities to achieve a healthy lifestyle is not impossible. Here are some steps you need to take to have a better life and health.
Become more active
Scientists have proved that regular exercise can help to reduce cholesterol and the risk of heart disease. Remember that you do not need to do too much exercise - just a 30-minute walk a day will bring health benefits. But it is important that you do it regularly and safely. Simple things like walking or cycling to school, using the stairs instead of the lift, doing the housework and gardening can all contribute to good health.
Moreover, hobbies such as dancing, reading, listening to music, playing chess, and solving crossword or sudoku puzzles are also good ways to keep your body and mind engaged, and increase life expectancy. No matter where you are - at home, at work, or at play - always look for opportunities to be more active and energetic.
‘Eat to live, not live to eat’ is the advice to follow.The food and drink we consume can dramatically affect our health. Bad nutrition based on fast food, and meals high in fat and sugar can lead to obesity, diabetes, some types of cancer and other chronic diseases. Planning and following a healthy and balanced diet is not difficult at all. Eat the right amount of calories to balance the energy you get from food and the energy you use. Make sure you have a wide range of foods to receive all the nutrients you need. Remember to eat less saturated fat, sugar and salt, and more fish, fruit, and vegetables.
Stay positive and be happy
Once you have started to be more active and eat more healthily, you can notice that you also feel happier. There is no doubt that daily worrying and stress can damage your heart and brain. When you are under a lot of stress, you may get angry easily. Anger and hostility have negative effects on the cardiovascular system. Recent research has confirmed that angry, hostile people live a shorter life. Try to control your anger, always look at the positive side of every situation and be optimistic. If necessary, practise some meditation and yoga to help you to relieve your stress and anger, and enjoy life more.
Read the following passage and choose the correct answer to each of the questions.
Though called by sweet-sounding names like Firinga or Katrina, tropical cyclones are huge rotating storms 200 to 2,000 kilometers wide with winds that blow at speeds of more than 100 kilometers per hour (kph). Weather professionals know them as tropical cyclones, but they are called hurricanes in the Caribbean Sea, typhoons in the Pacific Ocean, and cyclones in the Indian Ocean. They occur in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Large ones have destroyed cities and killed hundreds of thousands of people.
Tropical cyclones begin over water that is warmer than 27 degrees Celsius (80 degrees Fahrenheit) slightly north or south of the earth’s equator. Warm, humid air full of water vapor moves upward. The earth’s rotation causes the growing storm to start to rotate around its center (called the eye). At a certain height, the water vapor condenses, changing to liquid and releasing heat. The heat draws more air and water vapor upward, creating a cycle as air and water vapor rise and liquid water falls. If the cycle speeds up until winds reach 118 kilometers per hour, the storm qualifies as a tropical cyclone.
Most deaths in tropical cyclones are caused by storm surge. This is a rise in sea level, sometimes seven meters or more, caused by the storm pushing against the ocean’s surface. Storm surge was to blame for the flooding of New Orleans in 2005. The storm surge of Cyclone Nargis in 2008 in Myanmar pushed seawater nearly four meters deep some 40 kilometers inland, resulting in many deaths.
It has never been easy to forecast a tropical cyclone accurately. The goal is to know when and where the next tropical cyclone will form. “And we can’t really do that yet,” says David Nolan, a weather researcher from the University of Miami. The direction and strength of tropical cyclones are also difficult to predict, even with computer assistance. In fact, long-term forecasts are poor; small differences in the combination of weather factors lead to very different storms. More accurate forecasting could help people decide to evacuate when a storm is on the way.
Read the passage and decide if each sentence is true (T) or false (F). Circle your choice (T or F).
NORMAL DIET FOR ADOLESCENTS – 12 TO 18 YEARS OF AGE
1. Changing Food Habits
Teenagers are often very busy with school, work, and sports schedules. Help your teenager plan his day if he cannot be home for meals. Send healthy snacks or packed lunches with him. This will help him avoid filling up on "junk" foods or high fat foods. They may need extra snacks to take with them or meals they can prepare quickly.
Your teenager still learns from your healthy eating habits. Be an example and praise his good food choices whenever you can. Never criticise the way your child looks at this time of life. Teenagers can easily become too worried about their body image. If they are eating too much or too little, it can affect their growth. Talk with your doctor if you are worried about your teenager's eating habits.
2. Food Group Choices
Give your teenager at least one serving per day of a high vitamin C food. Examples are citrus fruits and juices, tomatoes, potatoes, and green peppers. Your teenager also needs one serving per day of a high vitamin A food. This includes spinach, winter squash, carrots, or sweet potatoes.
Choose lean meats, fish, and poultry foods for your teenager. They are a source of proteins young people need in the period of growth. Also, give your teenager 2% milk and low-fat dairy foods. Avoid fried foods and high fat desserts; serve them only on special occasions. This will lower his risk for heart disease when he is older.
Read the following passage and choose the best answer (A, B, C or D) for each question.
Although they are safe to use in the short term, coal, gas and oil present a long term threat to the environment. All three types of fossil fuels produce carbon dioxide in far greater quantities than plants can use. The carbon dioxide then accumulates in the atmosphere and may even increase the earth’s “heat load” and lead to global rises in temperature. Furthermore, all three fossil fuels are non-renewable forms of energy.
Geothermal power is unlikely ever to be an energy source of major importance. It is limited and is exploitable in only a few places. Hydro-power offers a much more useful source of energy. It is also renewable but its availability is limited. Dams cannot be built in certain areas. Wind power is a pollution-free source of energy but it cannot be used in many parts of the world where there is insufficient wind. Wave power is non - polluting and doesn’t add to the earth’s heat but it is ineffective where the sea is usually calm.
Solar power is renewable. It neither causes pollution nor adds to the earth’s heat load. Unfortunately, solar power is not distributed equally and it also requires expensive equipment. Finally, nuclear power provides a very efficient and renewable power source. However, not only is there a great danger of leaks or accidents but there is also the problem of the disposal of radioactive waste.