Câu tường thuật với to-V và V-ing - Câu điều kiện trong câu tường thuật

Reported speech with conditionals and Reported Speech with to-infinitives and gerunds

( Tường thuật câu điều kiện và tường thuật với động từ theo sau là “to V” và “V-ing)

I. Reported speech with conditionals

1. Câu điều kiện loại 1

Nếu trong câu nói trực tiếp có câu điều kiện loại 1, khi chuyển sang dạng tường thuật sẽ lùi 1 thì thành câu điều kiện loại 2.

Ví dụ: Jim said, ‘If I catch the bus, Ill be home by six.’

=>  Jim said that if he caught the bus, he would be home by six.

(Jim nói rằng nếu anh ta bắt kịp xe buýt, anh ta sẽ về nhà vào lúc 6 giờ. )

Khi chuyển thành câu tường thuật phải lùi 1 thì: catch thành caught, will be home thành would be home.

2. Câu điều kiện loại 2

Trong câu tường thuật, câu điều kiện loại 2 khi chuyển từ câu nói trực tiếp sang tường thuật không cần thay đổi về thì.

Ví dụ: My mom said to me, ‘ If you had a permit, you could find a job.’

=> My mom said to me that if I had a permit, I could find a job.

( Mẹ tôi nói với tôi là nếu tôi có giấy phép, tôi có thể đi tìm việc. )

3. Câu điều kiện loại 3

Tương tự như câu điều kiện loại 2, ở câu điều kiện loại 3 khi chuyển câu nói trực tiếp sang tường thuật cũng không cần thay đổi về thì.

Ví dụ: Tom said, ‘If Jenna had loved me, she wouldn’t have left like that.’

=> Tom said that if Jenna had loved him, she wouldn’t have left like that.

(Tom nói rằng nếu Jenna yêu anh ta, cô ấy đã không bỏ đi như vậy. )

4. If + câu hỏi

Nếu trong câu nói trực tiếp có câu hỏi chứa if, khi chuyển thành câu tường thuật, mệnh đề if luôn luôn được xếp cuối câu.

Ví dụ: He wondered, ‘If the baby is a boy, what will we call him?’

=>  He wondered what they would call the baby if it was a boy.

( Anh ta băn khoăn không biết đặt tên em bé mới sinh là gì nếu em bé là con trai.)

Mệnh đề ‘if the baby is a boy’ khi chuyển sang câu tường thuật được xếp đứng cuối câu, sau mệnh đề chính ‘what will we call him?’

‘If the car is broken down, what should I do?’ she asked.

=>  She asked what to do if the car was broken down.

(Cô ấy hỏi cô ấy phải làm gì nếu cái xe bị hỏng.)

II. Reported Speech with to-infinitives and gerunds

- Khi tường thuật lời nói của một người nào đó, chúng ta có thể diễn giải lời nói của họ bằng cách sử dụng một số động từ tường thuật.

Vd: He said, “Good morning!”

=> He greeted me.

- Có 4 dạng cấu trúc đi với động từ tường thuật:

V + to-V

V + sb + to-V

V + V-ing

V + that-clause

 

Động từ tường thuật

Lời nói trực tiếp

Câu tường thuật

V + to-V

agree + to-V: đồng ý làm gì

“Yes, I’ll do it again.”

He agreed to do it again.

demand + to-V: đòi hỏi làm gì

“Tell me the truth.”

He demanded to be told the truth.

offer + to-V: đề nghị làm gì cho người khác

“Would you like me to drive you home?”

“Shall I carry your bags?”

He offered to drive me home.

He offered to carry my bags.

promise + to-V: hứa làm gì

“I will pay you on Friday.”

He promised to pay me on Friday.

refuse + to-V: từ chối làm gì

“No, I won’t tell you her secret.”

He refused to tell me her secret.

threaten + to-V: đe dọa làm gì

“Keep quiet or I’ll punish you.”

He threatened to punish me if I didn’t keep quiet.

claim + to-V: quả quyết về điều gì

“I witnessed the crime.”

He claimed to have witnessed the crime.

ask + to-V: đề nghị được làm gì

“Can I go out?”

He asked to go out.

V + sb + to-V

advise sb + to-V: khuyên ai làm gì

“If I were you, I would talk about your problem.”

He advised me to talk about my problem.

allow sb + to-V: cho phép ai làm gì

“You can use my phone.”

He allowed me to use his phone.

tell sb + (not) to-V: bảo ai làm gì

“Don’t lie down.”

He told us not to lie down.

ask sb + to-V: đề nghị ai làm gì

“Please, close the door.”

“Could you pass me the salt, please?”

“Do you mind explaining that again, please?

He asked me to close the door.

He asked me to pass him the salt.

He asked me to explain that again.

beg/implore sb + to-V: van xin ai làm gì/ không làm gì

“Please, please don’t hit the dog.”

He begged me not to hit the dog.

command sb + to-V: ra lệnh cho ai làm gì

“Move to your right.”

He commanded me to move to my right.

encourage sb + to-V: khuyến khích ai làm gì

“Go ahead, say what you think.”

He encouraged me to say what I thought.

forbid sb + to-V: cấm ai làm gì

“You mustn’t come home after eleven.”

He forbade us to come home after eleven.

instruct sb + to-V: hướng dẫn ai làm gì

“Mix the eggs with the flour.”

He instructed me to mix the eggs with the flour.

invite sb + to-V: mời ai làm gì

“I’d like you to come to my party.”

“Would you like to go to the movies?”

He invited me (to go) to his party.

He invited me (to go) to the movies.

order sb + to-V: ra lệnh cho ai làm gì

“Don’ leave your room again.”

He ordered me not to leave my room again.

permit sb + to-V: cho phép ai làm gì

“You may speak to the judge.”

He permitted/allowed me to speak to the judge.

remind sb + to-V: nhắc nhở ai làm gì

“Don’t forget to turn the lights off.”

He reminded me to turn the lights off.

urge sb + to-V: hối thúc ai làm gì

“Try to have sympathy for the family.”

He urged me to try to have sympathy for the family.

warn sb + (not) to-V: cảnh báo ai (không) làm gì

“Don’t touch the wire with wet hands.”

He warned me not to touch the wire with wet hands.

want sb + to-V: muốn ai làm gì

“I’d like you to be more polite.”

He wanted me to be more polite.

V + V-ing

accuse sb of V-ing/having P2: buộc tội ai làm gì

'You acted as if you were guilty.

He accused me of acting as if I were guilty.

apologise (to sb) for V-ing/having P2: xin lỗi vì việc gì

“I'm sorry I hurt you."

He apologised for hurting/ having hurt me.

admit + V-ing/having P2: thừa nhận đã làm gì

'Yes, I was wrong. "

He admitted being/ having been wrong.

boast about + V-ing: khoe khoang về việc gì

"I'm the fastest runner of all."

He boasted about being the fastest runner of all.

complain to sb about V-ing: phàn nàn với ai về việc gì

"You always argue.”

He complained to me about my arguing.

deny + V-ing/having P2: chối là đã làm gì

"No, I didn't eat your cake."

He denied eating/ having eaten my cake.

insist on + V-ing: khăng khăng, nài nỉ về việc gì

'You must wear that blouse. "

He insisted on me/my wearing that blouse.

suggest + V-ing: gợi ý làm gì

"Let's order a pizza."

“Shall we dance?”

“Why don’t we go together?”

He suggested ordering a pizza.

He suggested dancing.

He suggested going together.

congratulate sb on V-ing/having P2: chúc mừng ai về việc gì

“Congratulations! You won the game!”

He congratulated the students on winning the game.

thank sb for (V-ing/having P2) sth: cảm ơn ai vì điều gì

“Thank you very much for your advice,”

He thanked me for my advice.

warn sb against V-ing: cảnh báo ai về điều gì

“Don’t invest in that business,”

He warned me against investing in that business.

blame sb for (V-ing/ having P2) sth: đổ lỗi cho ai về điều gì

“You are responsible for this failure,”

He blamed me for that failure.

confess to doing/ having P2: thú nhận là đã làm gì

“It was me who stole the money.”

He confessed to stealing the money.

V + that-clause

agree + that-clause: đồng ý rằng

'Yes, she's very kind. "

He agreed that she was very kind.

claim + that-clause: quả quyết rằng

"I saw the accident."

He claimed that he had seen the accident.

complain + that-clause: phàn nàn rằng

'You never ask my opinion."

He complained that I never asked his opinion.

deny + that-clause: phủ nhận rằng

"I have never met her!"

He denied that he had ever met her.

exclaim + that-clause: thốt lên rằng

"It's a tragedy!"

He exclaimed that it was a tragedy.

explain + that-clause: giải thích rằng

"It's a complicated problem."

He explained that it was a complicated problem.

inform sb + that-clause: thông báo với ai rằng

"Your request is being reviewed.”

He informed me that my request was being reviewed.

promise + that-clause: hứa rằng

"I won't be late."

He promised that he wouldn't be late.

suggest + that-clause: gợi ý rằng

"You ought to give her a call."

He suggested that I (should) give her a call.

explain to sb + how: giải thích với ai việc gì diễn ra như thế nào

'That's how I succeeded."

He explained to me how he had succeeded.

wonder whether + to-V/ clause

wonder where/what/how + to-V

He asked himself, "Shall I invite them?"



He asked himself, "Where shall I go?"

He asked himself, "What shall I read first?"

He asked himself, "How shall I tell her?"

He wondered whether to invite them. / He wondered whether he should invite them.

He wondered where to go.


He wondered what to read first.

He wondered how to tell her.

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